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Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.

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Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Ketone

Compound in which a carbonyl group is bound to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or to one alkyl and one aryl group.

Radical

An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group IIA metals

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Dilution

Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

Allotropes

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Standard Electrodes

Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.