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Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

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Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Wild patina, is it so bad?

Usually this kind of patina appears on monuments. The most striking example is the Statue of Liberty in New York.

Solvolysis

The reaction of a substance with the solvent in which it is dissolved.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Pairing

A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.

Periodic Table of Elements

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.

Linkage Isomers

Isomers in which a particular ligand bonds to a metal ion through different donor atoms.

 

Three ways to make patina at home

The first way is ammonia patination. To do this, take a plastic container. Put a couple of paper or ordinary towels at the bottom. Moisten them with ammonia. Then sprinkle with large table salt.