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At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

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Proton

A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)

The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2

Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.

Designated area

An area that may be used for work with carcinogens, reproductive toxins, or substances that have a high degree of acute toxicity. A designated area may be the entire laboratory, an area of a laboratory, or a device such as a laboratory hood.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Noble Gases (Rare Gases)

Elements of the periodic Group 0, also called rare gases, formerly called inert gases, He,Ne,Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn.