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At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

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    People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...

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    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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Bonding Pair

Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.

Open Sextet

Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).

Titration

A Procedure in which one solution is added to another solution until the chemical reaction between the two solutes is complete, the concentration of one solution is known and that of the other is unknown.

 

Flash Point

The temperature at which a liquid will yield enough flamable vapour to ignite. There are various recognized industrial testing methods, therefore the method used must be stated.

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Acid Anhydride

Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid. General formula is R--C--O--C--R. Chemical compound that reacts with water to form an acid and are usually oxides of nonmetallic elements.

Electromotive Series

The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.

Curie (Ci)

The basic unit used to describe the intensity of radioactivity in a sample of material. One curie equals 37 billion disintegrations per second or approximately the amount of radioactivty given off by 1 gram of radium.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

Coordination Isomers

Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex anion of the same compound.

Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Alkynes

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Hybridization

Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.