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Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

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  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.



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Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Dissociation

In aqueous solution, the process in which a solid ionic compound separates into its ions.

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Coordinate Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which both shared electrons are donated by the same atom, a bond between a Lewis base and a Lewis acid.

Displacement Reactions

Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

Activity Series

A listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing activity.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Safranine

Also called "phenosafranine". A purplish-red, water-soluble dye, C18H14N4, used for textiles and as a stain in microscopy.