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One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights, also called dalton.

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Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

Period

The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.

Mechanism

The sequence of steps by which reactants are converted into products.

Aldehyde

Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group, general formula, O-R-C-H

 

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Solvent

The dispersing medium of a solution.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.