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Group IIA metals

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  • What are Compound Microscopes?

    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

  • Diamonds Are Forever

    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

  • Creating Malachite egg

    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...



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Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Wild patina, is it so bad?

Usually this kind of patina appears on monuments. The most striking example is the Statue of Liberty in New York.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Nuclear Binding Energy

Energy equivalent of the mass deficiency, energy released in the formation of an atom from the subatomic particles.

 

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Pairing

A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

Neutralization

The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.

Alkaline Battery

A dry cell in which the electrolyte contains KOH.

Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.