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A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

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Cathode

Electrode at which reduction occurs in a cathode ray tube, the negative electrode.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Central Atom

An atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion that is bonded to more than one other atom.

Electrodes

Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Alkenes (Olefins)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.

Enzyme

A protein that acts as a catalyst in biological systems.

Polyene

A compound that contains more than one double bond per molecule.

Carcinogen

A substance capable of causing or producing cancer in mammals.