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A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

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Atomic Number


Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.
 

Partial Pressure

The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.

Ionization

In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.

Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Saccharic

of or derived from saccharin or a saccharine substance.

 

Base

A substance that produces OH (aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong soluable bases are soluble in water and are completely dissociated. Weak bases ionize only slightly.

Levorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry