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A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

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Saponification

Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.

Inner Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals for one shell inside the outermost occupied shell in its hybridization.

Downs Cell

Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.

Osmotic Pressure

The hydrostatic pressure produced on the surface of a semipermable membrane by osmosis.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Oil

Liquid triester of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids.

Emulsion

Colloidal suspension of a liquid in a liquid.

Eluate

Solvent (or mobile phase) which passes through a chromatographic column and removes the sample components from the stationary phase.

Phenol

Hydrocarbon derivative containing an [OH] group bound to an aromatic raing.