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A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

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Peroxide

A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Metal peroxides contain the peroxide ion, O22

Dry Cells

Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and so on, many are Leclanche cells.

Active Metal

Metal with low ionization energy that loses electrons readily to form cations.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Amine Complexes

Complex species that contain ammonia molecules bonded to metal ions.

Standard Molar Enthalphy of Formation

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole of a substance in a specified state from its elements in their standard states.

Net Ionic Equation

Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

History of diamonds

Diamond has been known for about 5 thousand years. Historians suggest that it was first discovered in India in river placers. It has long been credited with magical properties, and the largest famous crystals and products from them are shrouded in a halo of mystical legends.

Dosimeter

A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.