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Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

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Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Amphoterism

The ability to react with both acids and bases.Ability of substance to act as either an acid or a base.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Dosimeter

A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.

Coulometry

The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.

xenon trioxide

A colorless, nonvolatile solid, XeO3, explosive when dry: in solution it is called xenic acid.

Displacement Reactions

Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Heterocyclic Amine

Amine in which the nitrogen is part of a ring.