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Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

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Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Geiger counter

A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes through it.

Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.

Heterocyclic Amine

Amine in which the nitrogen is part of a ring.

Standard Reaction

A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.

Electron Deficient Compounds

Compounds that contain at least one atom (other than H) that shares fewer than eight electrons.

Square Planar

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

Nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.

Cathodic Protection

Protection of a metal (making ir a cathode) against corrosion by attaching it to a sacrifical anode of a more easily oxidized metal.