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Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

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Heat of Condensation

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a vapor at it's condensation point to condense the vapour with no change in temperature.

Boron Hydrides

Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.

Faraday's Law of Electrolysis

One equivalent weight of a substance is produced at each electrode during the passage of 96,487 coulombs of charge through an electrolytic cell.

Hydrophilic Colloids

Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.

Explosive

A chemical or compound that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release or pressure, gas, heat and light when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, high temperature or applied potential.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Electrophile

Positively charged or electron-deficient.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Salinometer

An instrument for measuring the amount of salt in a solution. Also,"salimeter, salometer."

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

ytterbium

A rare metallic element found in gadolinite and forming compounds resembling those of yttrium. Symbol: Yb, at. wt.: 173.04, at. no.: 70, sp. gr.: 6.96. Cf."rare-earth element."

 

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.

 

Flammable

A liquid as defined by NFPD and DOT as having a flash point below 37.8°C (100°F).

Emulsifying Agent

A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles, an emulsifier.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

Electron Deficient Compounds

Compounds that contain at least one atom (other than H) that shares fewer than eight electrons.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.