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Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.

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Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Contact Process

Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

Electron Deficient Compounds

Compounds that contain at least one atom (other than H) that shares fewer than eight electrons.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Rate-determining Step

The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.

Catenation

Bonding of atoms of the same element into chains or rings.
The bonding together of atoms of the same element to form chains.
The ability of an element to bond to itself.

Resonance

The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.

Bond Energy

The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in gas phase).The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous state.

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Chemical Periodicity

The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table.

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.

 

Denaturation

A process pertaining to a change in structure of a protein form regular to irregular arrangement of the polypeptide chains.

Cyclotron

A device for accelerating charged particles along a spiral path.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

xylic acid

Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.

Calorie

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.