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Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Every chemical element has absorption lines at certain wavelengths corresponding to the differences between the energy levels of its atomic orbitals.

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Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.

 

Amphiprotism

Ability of a substance to exhibit amphiprotism by accepting donated protons.

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Degenerate

Of the same energy.

Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.

Percentage Ionization

The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given concentration.

Nitrogenases

A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in some plants, which catalyze reactions by which N2 molecules from the air are converted to ammonia.

 

Flash Point

The temperature at which a liquid will yield enough flamable vapour to ignite. There are various recognized industrial testing methods, therefore the method used must be stated.

Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Solvent

The dispersing medium of a solution.