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Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Every chemical element has absorption lines at certain wavelengths corresponding to the differences between the energy levels of its atomic orbitals.

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Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

Single Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of two electrons (one pair) between two atoms.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

Enthalpy

The heat content of a specific amount of substance, defined as E= PV.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

Salicylaldehyde

An oily, slightly water-soluble liquid, C7H6O2, having an almondlike odor: used chiefly in perfumery and in the synthesis of coumarin.

Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.