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A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.

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Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

Inert s-pair Effect

Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.

Halogens

Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I

Nitrogenases

A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in some plants, which catalyze reactions by which N2 molecules from the air are converted to ammonia.

 

Ferromagnetism

The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Alkali Metals

Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

DP number

The degree of polymerization, the average number of monomer units per polymer unit.

Homogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.