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Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group, general formula, O-R-C-H

 

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Electronegativity

A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.

Osmotic Pressure

The hydrostatic pressure produced on the surface of a semipermable membrane by osmosis.

Band

A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Electrolysis

Process that occurs in electrolytic cells.

Ferromagnetism

The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.

Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)

The law stating that a pure substance will always have the same percent by weight. Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

Basic Salt

A salt containing an ionizable OH group.

Alums

Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

Galvanizing

Placing a thin layer of zinc on a ferrous material to protect the underlying surface from corrosion.

 

Spectrum

Display of component wavelengths (colours) of electromagnetic radiation.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Formula Weight

The mass of one formula unit of a substance in atomic mass units.

 

Photon

A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation, also called quantum of light.

 

Exothermicity

The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

Frequency

The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Atom

The smallest particle of an element.

Hydrometer

A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.