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Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

All actinides are radioactive, highly electropositive, tarnish readily in air, react with boiling water or dilute acid to release hydrogen gas and combine directly with most nonmetals.

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yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

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Essential Oil

A plant extract that has a distinctive odour or flavour.

Ionization

In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.

xylene

Any of three oily, colorless, water-insoluble, flammable, toxic, isomeric liquids, C8H10, of the benzene series, obtained mostly from coal tar: used chiefly in the manufacture of dyes.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.

Electrophile

Positively charged or electron-deficient.

Doublet

Two peaks or bands of about equal intensity appearing close together on a spectrogram.