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Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

All actinides are radioactive, highly electropositive, tarnish readily in air, react with boiling water or dilute acid to release hydrogen gas and combine directly with most nonmetals.

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Method of Initial Rates

Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.

Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.

Nuclear Reactor

A system in which controlled nuclear fisson reactions generate heat energy on a large scale, which is subsequently converted into electrical energy.

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Viscosity

Resistance offered by the molecules of a liquid to flow is termed as viscosity.

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

Pairing

A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group IIA metals

Overlap

The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same region of space.

Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Cathode Ray Tube

Closed glass tube containing a gas under low pressure, with electrodes near the ends and a luminescent screen at the end near the positive electrode, produces cathode rays when high voltage is applied.

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Hydrolysis Constant

An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.

Film badge

A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

Alkaline Battery

A dry cell in which the electrolyte contains KOH.