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Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

All actinides are radioactive, highly electropositive, tarnish readily in air, react with boiling water or dilute acid to release hydrogen gas and combine directly with most nonmetals.

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Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

Bronsted-Lowry Base

A proton acceptor

Solution

Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

xylidine

Any of six isomeric compounds that have the formula C8H11N, are derivatives of xylene, and resemble aniline: used in dye manufacture.

Net Ionic Equation

Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.

Carbanion

An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.