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A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.

Acids taste sour, turn litmus red, gives a solution with a pH of less than 7 when dissolved in water and often react with some metals to produce hydrogen gas.

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Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.

Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Sulfuric Acid

H2SO4: colorless, oily liquid, boiling point 330C. A 96 percent solution is used in the laboratory.

Fire Hazard: This is a very powerful, acidic oxidizer which can Ignite or even explode on contact with many materials, i.e. acetic acid ,acetone+ HNOs, alcohols, + H202, NH4OH, HCL, NaOH, and others.

Sulfuric acid has a wide range of uses and plays a part in the production of nearly all manufactured goods.

Heavy Water

Water containing deuterium, a heavy isotope of hydrogen.

Aldehyde

Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group, general formula, O-R-C-H

 

Corrosion

Oxidation of metals in the presence of air and moisture.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Displacement Reactions

Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.

 

Cis-Trans Isomerism

A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.

Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)

The law stating that a pure substance will always have the same percent by weight. Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.

Alkenes (Olefins)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Saccharic

of or derived from saccharin or a saccharine substance.

 

Total Ionic Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Electrophoresis

A technique for separation of ions by rate and direction of migration in an electric field.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.

Solvent

The dispersing medium of a solution.