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A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.

Acids taste sour, turn litmus red, gives a solution with a pH of less than 7 when dissolved in water and often react with some metals to produce hydrogen gas.

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Foam

Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.

Group

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

xenon tetrafluoride

A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF4, prepared by heating a gaseous mixture of fluorine and xenon.

Solution

Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

Inner Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals for one shell inside the outermost occupied shell in its hybridization.

Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Cis-

The prefix used to indicate that groups are located on the same side of a bon about which rotation is restricted.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.