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A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.

Acids taste sour, turn litmus red, gives a solution with a pH of less than 7 when dissolved in water and often react with some metals to produce hydrogen gas.

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Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Derivative

A compound that can be imagined to arise from a partent compound by replacement of one atom with another atom or group of atoms. Used extensively in orgainic chemistry to assist in identifying compounds.

Effective Collisons

Collision between molecules resulting in a reaction, one in which the molecules collide with proper relative orientations and sufficient energy to react.

 

Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.

Alkenes (Olefins)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.

Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

Nucleons

Particles comprising the nucleus, protons and neutrons.

Electrolytic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current by ions through a solution or pure liquid.

Debye

The unit used to express dipole moments.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.