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A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.

Acids taste sour, turn litmus red, gives a solution with a pH of less than 7 when dissolved in water and often react with some metals to produce hydrogen gas.

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Percent Composition

The mass percent of each element in a compound.

Dry Cells

Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and so on, many are Leclanche cells.

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Nitric Acid

HNO3: A strong acid, it is toxic and can cause severe burns. Transparent colorless or yellowish, fuming, suffocating, caustic and corrosive liquid. Nitric acid boiling point is 83C. A 70 percent solution is used in the S.S.E. laboratory for junction depth measurements. Nitric acid is also present in the metal etch solution used for the Aluminum etch procedure.


The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Atomic Number

Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.


The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.

Atomic Mass Unit (amu)

One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights, also called dalton.

Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.