The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.
Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.
Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
Varieties of garnet minerals
The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...
Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
The most expensive metal in the world
Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.
What are Compound Microscopes?
Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.
Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.
The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.
The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to the concentration of the gas in the solution.
An ionization reaction between identical molecules.
Refers to the occurrence of an element in an uncombined or free state in nature.
The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.
An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.
Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.
A heavy, colorless, chemically inactive, monatomic gaseous element used for filling radio, television, and luminescent tubes. Symbol: Xe, at. wt.: 131.30, at. no.: 54.