Refers to the occurrence of an element in an uncombined or free state in nature.
Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?
Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.
Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
Use of diamonds
Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...
A Compound of the general formula R-C-O-R1 where R and R1 may be the same or different, and may be either aliphatic or aromatic.
Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted. Sulfur is melted with superheated water (at 170°C under high pressure) and forced to the surface of the earth as a slurry.
The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.
Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.
The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.
Colloidal suspension of a liquid in a liquid.
The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.
A neutral subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0087 amu.
Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.
Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.