Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.
Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?
Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.
Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
Use of diamonds
Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...
Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.
Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light clockwise, also called dextro.
Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of two electrons (one pair) between two atoms.
Number of moles of a solute that dissolve to produce a litre of saturated solution.
Description of a chemical reaction by placing the formulas of the reactants on the left and the formulas of products on the right of an arrow.
A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.
The unit used to express dipole moments.
Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.
History of fireworks
There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.
A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.