Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most brilliant and timeless gem.
Most of diamonds are used in engineering. Abrasives, drills, cutting tools for metal processing, and many other products are made of diamonds.
Diamonds are an interesting and extraordinary resource. Earlier, until the XV century, mankind knew only one side of this amazing mineral: that they are unusually solid. Until the Middle Ages, they were valued below the emerald or ruby. Only in the XVII century, the cutters invented a special cut of the mineral: “brilliant”, which emphasizes its dignity.
In the jewelry business, only colorless stones without a shade, except blue, and without flaws, the so-called diamonds of "pure water" are valued. For jewelry purposes, no more than 10-15% of mined gems are produced.