Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.
Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?
Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.
Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
Use of diamonds
Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...
A rare metallic element found in gadolinite and forming compounds resembling those of yttrium. Symbol: Yb, at. wt.: 173.04, at. no.: 70, sp. gr.: 6.96. Cf."rare-earth element."
Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of visible light.
Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.
The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.
A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.
All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.
People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car.
This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is so important and why you should always use the chemicals that you own for their intended purpose only. Otherwise, the repercussions could be disastrous to say the least. There are specific things that you and those around you should do when handling, storing or using chemicals in nearly every form.
Weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element, The relative masses of atoms of different elements.
Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.
The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.