Refers to the overall processes by which metals are extracted from ores.
Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?
Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.
Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
Use of diamonds
Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry.
As these quality standards become stricter, beverage producers are increasingly called upon to get products to market faster using fewer resources, while simultaneously managing ingredient quality, and ultimately, risk.
A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in metallurgy, usually added to lower a melting point.
Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.
For acid-base titrations, organic compounds that exhibit different colors in solutions of different acidities, used to determine the point at which reaction between two solutes is complete.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.
Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.
Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.
A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.
The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.
The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to the concentration of the gas in the solution.