Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.
Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?
Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.
Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
Use of diamonds
Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...
Unit of electrical current, one ampere equals one coulomb per second.
Where is ozone used?
Ozone is widely used in various areas of our life. It is used in medicine, in industry, in everyday life.
The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.
Freezing Point Depression
The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point
Solid triester of glycerol and (mostly) saturated fatty acids.
The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.
A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.
Band Theory of Metals
Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of metallic solids.
The quantity of product formed by the interaction of two or more substances, generally expressed as a percentage of the quantity obtained to that theoretically obtainable.
Alpha (a) Particle
Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.