Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.
Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?
Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.
Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
Use of diamonds
Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...
Metal with low ionization energy that loses electrons readily to form cations.
The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table.
Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).
The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.
Heat of Condensation
The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a vapor at it's condensation point to condense the vapour with no change in temperature.
Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).
Molecular Orbital Theory
A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.
Nickel-cadmium cell (Nicad battery)
A dry cell in which the anode is Cd, the cathode is NiO2, and the electrolyte is basic.
Three ways to make patina at home
The first way is ammonia patination. To do this, take a plastic container. Put a couple of paper or ordinary towels at the bottom. Moisten them with ammonia. Then sprinkle with large table salt.
Placing a thin layer of zinc on a ferrous material to protect the underlying surface from corrosion.