The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.
Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?
Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.
Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
Use of diamonds
Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...
Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.
Liquid triester of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids.
Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.
A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.
The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances
A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.
An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry.
As these quality standards become stricter, beverage producers are increasingly called upon to get products to market faster using fewer resources, while simultaneously managing ingredient quality, and ultimately, risk.
The mass of one formula unit of a substance in atomic mass units.
An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.