A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)
Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?
Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.
Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
Use of diamonds
Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...
Isomers that differ only in the way that atoms are oriented in space, consist of geometrical and optical isomers.
The dispersing medium of a solution.
Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex anion of the same compound.
Crystal field designation for an inner orbital complex, contains electrons paired t2g orbitals before eg orbitals are occupied in octahedral complexes.
The smallest particle of an element or compound capable of a stable, independent existence.
A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Metal peroxides contain the peroxide ion, O22
Physical properties of solutions that depend upon the number but not the kind of solute particles present.
A theory, that attempts to explain macroscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic or molecular terms.
Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.
Radius of an atom.