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Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

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Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Emulsion

Colloidal suspension of a liquid in a liquid.

Atomic Weight

Weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element, The relative masses of atoms of different elements.

Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Electron Deficient Compounds

Compounds that contain at least one atom (other than H) that shares fewer than eight electrons.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

High Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an outer orbital complex, all t2g and eg orbitals are singly occupied before any pairing occurs.

Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

Conformations

Structures of a compound that differ by the extent of rotation about a single bond.