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Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

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Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.

Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

London Forces

Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between short-lived temporary (induced) dipoles, also called dispersion Forces.

Overlap

The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same region of space.

Mass Number

The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atom, an integer.

Band of Stability

Band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of number of neutrons versus atomic number.

Specific Rate Constant

An experimentally determined (proportionality) constant, which is different for different reactions and which changes only with temperature, k in the rate-law expression: Rate = k [A] x [B]v.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

Explosive

A chemical or compound that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release or pressure, gas, heat and light when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, high temperature or applied potential.