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Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

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Potential Energy

Energy that matter possesses by virtue of its position, condition or composition.

Electrolytic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current by ions through a solution or pure liquid.

Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

A proton donor.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Colloid

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do not settle out.

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Amphoterism

The ability to react with both acids and bases.Ability of substance to act as either an acid or a base.

Method of Initial Rates

Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.

Creating Malachite egg

One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but effective and visual, and as a result we will get something beautiful.