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Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

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Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Reaction Ratio

The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.

 

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Mass Number

The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atom, an integer.

Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Noble Gases (Rare Gases)

Elements of the periodic Group 0, also called rare gases, formerly called inert gases, He,Ne,Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn.

Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

Delocalization

Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.

Resonance

The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.