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Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

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Standard Molar Enthalphy of Formation

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole of a substance in a specified state from its elements in their standard states.

Amino Acid

Compound containing both an amino and a carboxylic acid group.The --NH2 group.

Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

Cis-Trans Isomerism

A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.

Standard Molar Volume

The volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas under standard conditions, 22.4liters.

Polymer

A large molecule consisting of chains or rings of linked monomer units, usually characterized by high melting and boiling points.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.