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Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.

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Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

Isomorphous

Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.

Extensive Property

A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.

Photon

A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation, also called quantum of light.

 

Frasch Process

Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted. Sulfur is melted with superheated water (at 170°C under high pressure) and forced to the surface of the earth as a slurry.

 

Enzyme

A protein that acts as a catalyst in biological systems.

Nernst Equation

Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard conditions.

Electronegativity

A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.

Mixture

A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.

Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Coordination Isomers

Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex anion of the same compound.

pH

Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H3O+[H+] ion, scale is commonly used over a range 0 to 14.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Fast Neutron

A neutron ejected at high kinetic energy in a nuclear reaction.

Levorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Hess' Law of Heat Summation

The enthalpy change for a reaction is the same whether it occurs in one step or a series of steps.

Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.