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A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

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Coulomb

Unit of electrical charge.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Diagonal Similarities

Refers to chemical similarities in the Periodic Table of elements of Period 2 to elements of Period 3 one group to the right, especially evident toward the left of the periodic table.

Structural Isomers

Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

K Capture

Absorption of a K shell (n=1) electron by a proton as it is converted to a neutron.

Nucleus

The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.

Mixture

A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.