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A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

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Octane Number

A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry.

As these quality standards become stricter, beverage producers are increasingly called upon to get products to market faster using fewer resources, while simultaneously managing ingredient quality, and ultimately, risk.

Surface Tension

It is the force in dynes acting along the surface of the liquid 1cm in length and perpendicular to it.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.

Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

Polymerization

The combination of many small molecules to form large molecules.

Lanthanide Contraction

A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.