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A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

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Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Amino Acid

Compound containing both an amino and a carboxylic acid group.The --NH2 group.

Coordinate Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which both shared electrons are donated by the same atom, a bond between a Lewis base and a Lewis acid.

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

Ostwald Process

A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide and nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen.

Dissociation Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissociation of a comples ion into a simple ion and coordinating species (ligands).

Open Sextet

Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).

Equivalence Point

The point at which chemically equivalent amounts of reactants have reacted.

Insulator

Poor electric and heat conductor.