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A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

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Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)

The law stating that a pure substance will always have the same percent by weight. Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Copper

Discovered : known to ancient civilisations
Origin : The name is derived from 'Cuprum', the Latin name for Cyprus.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Exothermicity

The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

Coulomb

Unit of electrical charge.

Photoelectric Effect

Emission of an electron from the surface of a metal caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain minimum energy, current increases with increasing intensity of radiation.

 

Zinc

Discovered: known in India and China before 1500 and to the Greeks and Romans before 20 BC as the copper-zinc alloy brass
Origin: The name is derived from the German ‘Zink’.
Atomic no: 30
Mass No: 65
Description: A grey metal with a blue tinge. World production exceeds 7 million tons a year, and it is used to galvanise iron to prevent it rusting. It is also employed in alloys and batteries, and as zinc oxide to stabilise rubber and plastics. Zinc is essential for all living things, and is important for growth and development. The average human body contains about 2.5 grams and takes in about 15 milligrams per day. Some foods have above average levels of zinc, including herring, beef, lamb, sunflower seeds and cheese.

Emission Spectrum

Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.

 

Noble Gases (Rare Gases)

Elements of the periodic Group 0, also called rare gases, formerly called inert gases, He,Ne,Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn.