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No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.

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End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Lead Storage Battery

Secondary voltaic cell used in most automobiles.

Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Faraday

One faraday of electricity corresponds to the charge on 6.022 x 1023 electrons, or 96,487.301 coulombs.

Harmful Chemicals Found In Food

It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to which one is healthy or not and which produces the best results. There is one thing that almost every can agree on. That being high sugar and caffeine products like sodas are not good for you, but those are not the only dangers found in food and beverages.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it may be changed from one form to another.

Reducing Agent

The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.