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Refers to the overall processes by which metals are extracted from ores.

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Sublimation

The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Chemical Safety

People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car.

This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is so important and why you should always use the chemicals that you own for their intended purpose only. Otherwise, the repercussions could be disastrous to say the least. There are specific things that you and those around you should do when handling, storing or using chemicals in nearly every form.

Saccharic acid

A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

Heterogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in a different phase (solid, liquid or gas) from the reactants, a contact catalyst.

Central Atom

An atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion that is bonded to more than one other atom.

Liquid Aerosol

Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.

Valence Bond Theory

Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.