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Quantum mechanical solution to a wave equation that designates the particular orbital within a given set (s, p, d, f ) in which a electron resides.

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Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point

Alkali Metals

Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).

Combination Reaction

Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.

Amine

Derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic groups.

Antibonding Orbital

A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.

Calorie

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

Molecular Formula

Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.