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The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.

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Coefficient of expansion

The ratio of the change in length or volumen of a body to the original lengthor volume for a unit change in temperature.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

A brief history of dyeing fabrics

 Dyeing fabrics is giving the fibers a homogeneous color that has a certain degree of strength. The methods of dyeing are very diverse, depending on the properties of the dyes and the dyed fibers.

Square Planar Complex

Complex in which the metal is in the center of a square plane, with ligand donor atoms at each of the four corners.

Varieties of garnet minerals

The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in elite jewelry.

Delocalization

Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.

Tetrahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Proton

A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.