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The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.

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  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Ozone

    We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Diamonds Are Forever

    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?



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xylidine

Any of six isomeric compounds that have the formula C8H11N, are derivatives of xylene, and resemble aniline: used in dye manufacture.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

Artificial Transmutation

An artificially induced nuclear reaction caused by the bombardment of a nucleus with subatomic particiles or small nucei.

Heat of Fusion

The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.

Capillary

A tube having a very small inside diameter.

Cathodic Protection

Protection of a metal (making ir a cathode) against corrosion by attaching it to a sacrifical anode of a more easily oxidized metal.

Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Combustible

Classification of liquid substances that will burn on the basis of flash points. A combustible liquid means any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8°C (100°F) but below 93.3°C (200°F), except any mixture having components with flash points of 93.3°C (200°F) or higher, the total of which makes up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.

Electron Configuration

Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.