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The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.

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Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Chemical Safety

People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car.

This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is so important and why you should always use the chemicals that you own for their intended purpose only. Otherwise, the repercussions could be disastrous to say the least. There are specific things that you and those around you should do when handling, storing or using chemicals in nearly every form.

Heat of Condensation

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a vapor at it's condensation point to condense the vapour with no change in temperature.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)

The law stating that a pure substance will always have the same percent by weight. Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.

Octane Number

A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.

Nernst Equation

Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard conditions.

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Electron Affinity

The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge, has a negative value if energy is released.

Amine

Derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic groups.