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A liquid as defined by NFPD and DOT as having a flash point below 37.8°C (100°F).

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  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Gas of rotten eggs

    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Ozone

    We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...



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S Orbital

A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital, one per energy level.

Double Salt

Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.

 

Method of Initial Rates

Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.

Pairing

A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

Use of diamonds

Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most brilliant and timeless gem.

Percent by Mass

100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.

Heat of Condensation

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a vapor at it's condensation point to condense the vapour with no change in temperature.

Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

How to make crystal glass

From history we know that the idea of creating crystal belongs to the British: they were the first to add lead oxides to the charge material, and as a result got glass with unusual “voice”, transparency and sparkling faces. Classical crystal contains 24% of lead oxide, but there are products with a higher content of up to 30%.