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- Diamonds Are Forever
Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
- What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
- What are Compound Microscopes?
Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
- Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.
Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.
A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.
Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Group IIA metals
The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge, has a negative value if energy is released.
A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.
At constant pressure the volume occupied by a definite mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.
Effective Nuclear Charge
The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.
Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity e.g glass.
Consisting of only one element.
The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.
Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.
A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.
Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.
An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.
Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.
High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.
Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.