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A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.

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Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Alkaline Battery

A dry cell in which the electrolyte contains KOH.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Avogadro's Number

The number (6.022x10^23) of atoms, molecules or particles found in exactly 1 mole of substance.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermal transitions in a sample material by heating/cooling and comparing the amount of energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or decrease with an inert reference material under similar conditions.

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

Element

A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.

Lewis Dot Formula (Electron Dot Formula)

Representation of the core of a molecule, ion or formula unit by showing atomic symbols and only outer shell electrons.

Strong Field Ligand

Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field and generally forms low spin complexes with metal ions when possible.

Native State

Refers to the occurrence of an element in an uncombined or free state in nature.