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A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.

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    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

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    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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Electrophile

Positively charged or electron-deficient.

Reducing Agent

The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.

Silicones

Polymeric organosilicon compounds, contain individual or cross-linked Si-O chains or rings in which some oxygens of SiO4 tetrahedra are replaced by other groups.

Magnetic Quantum Number (mc)

Quantum mechanical solution to a wave equation that designates the particular orbital within a given set (s, p, d, f ) in which a electron resides.

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Mother Nuclide

Nuclide that undergoes nuclear decay.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Integrated Rate Equation

An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified time, has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.

Photon

A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation, also called quantum of light.