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A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.

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    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

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    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

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    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...



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Artificial Transmutation

An artificially induced nuclear reaction caused by the bombardment of a nucleus with subatomic particiles or small nucei.

Strong Field Ligand

Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field and generally forms low spin complexes with metal ions when possible.

Hydrocarbons

Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

Carcinogen

A substance capable of causing or producing cancer in mammals.

 

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Percentage Ionization

The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given concentration.

Equilibrium Constant

A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

Ether

Compound in which an oxygen atom is bonded to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or one alkyl and one aryl group.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Continuous Spectrum

Spectrum that contains all wave-lengths in a specified region of the electromagnetic spectrum.