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A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.

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Proton

A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermal transitions in a sample material by heating/cooling and comparing the amount of energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or decrease with an inert reference material under similar conditions.

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

xenon

A heavy, colorless, chemically inactive, monatomic gaseous element used for filling radio, television, and luminescent tubes. Symbol: Xe, at. wt.: 131.30, at. no.: 54.

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.

Debye

The unit used to express dipole moments.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.