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A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.

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Radical

An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

Saturated Solution

Solution in which no more solute will dissolve.

Delocalization

Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.

Insoluble Compound

A very slightly soluble compound.

Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Emission Spectrum

Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.

 

xanthene dye

Any of a group of dyes having a molecular structure related to that of xanthene in which the aromatic (C6H4) groups are the chromophore.

 

Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

Dispersed Phase

The solute-like species in a colloid.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.