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Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.

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Cloud Chamber

A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.


A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.


An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or petroleum.

Geiger counter

A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes through it.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

A proton donor.


Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Photoelectric Effect

Emission of an electron from the surface of a metal caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain minimum energy, current increases with increasing intensity of radiation.