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The Chemical Glossary currently has 651 chemical entries. You may search the Chemical Glossary by entering the keyword in the search box or by browsing the entire chemical glossary by letter in alphabetical order.

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Mass Number

The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atom, an integer.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Base

A substance that produces OH (aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong soluable bases are soluble in water and are completely dissociated. Weak bases ionize only slightly.

Rate-law Expression

Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.

Percent Composition

The mass percent of each element in a compound.

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

xenon tetrafluoride

A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF4, prepared by heating a gaseous mixture of fluorine and xenon.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Alums

Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

Dimer

Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.

Effective Collisons

Collision between molecules resulting in a reaction, one in which the molecules collide with proper relative orientations and sufficient energy to react.

 

Cyclotron

A device for accelerating charged particles along a spiral path.

Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.

Electron

A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.

Conduction Band

A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than a filled band, a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Emulsifying Agent

A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles, an emulsifier.

Detergent

A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.