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The smallest particle of an element.

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  • What are Compound Microscopes?

    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

  • Diamonds Are Forever

    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

Most Popular

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

Debye

The unit used to express dipole moments.

Tetrahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

A proton donor.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

Period

The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.

Radiation

High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

Actual Yield

Amount of a specified pure product actually obtained from a given reaction. Compare with Theoretical Yield.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Conformations

Structures of a compound that differ by the extent of rotation about a single bond.

Molar Solubility

Number of moles of a solute that dissolve to produce a litre of saturated solution.

Kinetic-molecular Theory

A theory, that attempts to explain macroscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic or molecular terms.

Sulfuric Acid

H2SO4: colorless, oily liquid, boiling point 330C. A 96 percent solution is used in the laboratory.

Fire Hazard: This is a very powerful, acidic oxidizer which can Ignite or even explode on contact with many materials, i.e. acetic acid ,acetone+ HNOs, alcohols, + H202, NH4OH, HCL, NaOH, and others.

Sulfuric acid has a wide range of uses and plays a part in the production of nearly all manufactured goods.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Capillary Action

The drawing of a liquid up the inside of a small-bore tube when adhesive forces exceed cohesive forces, or the depression of the surface of the liquid when cohesive forces exceed the adhesive forces.

Boron Hydrides

Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.